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- THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA
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A genrleman. Information collected included times at an address; description of location; and details on people contacted at the location. Descriptive summary measures and distributions of contacts by location type, intensity, day of contact and by age are reported. Of the participants recruited, completed diaries were returned. Participant contact patterns were similar across all groups, with respect to the types of locations, intensity and day of contact, with some variation in the number of unique daily contacts.
The mean daily number of unique contacts by infants was estimated as 9. Our demonstration that contact patterns of mothers with infants are reasonably robust to socioeconomic and cultural differences is a step. Drinking-to-cope motivation and negative mood-drinking contingencies in a daily diary study of college students.
This study examined whether global drinking-to-cope DTC motivation moderates negative mood-drinking contingencies and negative mood-motivation contingencies at the daily level of analysis. Fixed-interval models tested whether global DTC motivation moderated relations between daily negative mood and that evening's drinking and episodic DTC. Time-to-drink models examined whether global DTC motivation moderated the effects of weekly negative mood on the immediacy of drinking and DTC in the weekly cycle. More evening drinking occurred on days characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, and students were more likely to report DTC on days when they experienced greater sadness.
Moreover, students reported drinking, heavy drinking, and DTC earlier in weeks characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, but no hypothesized interactions with global DTC motivation were found. RESULTS indicate that negative mood is associated with increased levels of drinking and drinking for coping reasons among college students but that the strength of these relations does not differ by global levels of DTC motivation.
These findings raise the possibility that global DTC measures are insufficient for examining within-person DTC processes. Further implications of these results are discussed, including future directions that may determine the circumstances under which, and for whom, DTC occurs. Relationship between early-life stress load and sleep in psychiatric outpatients: a sleep diary and actigraphy study. The present study aimed to investigate whether stress experienced early in life is associated with actigraphic and subjective sleep measures in a sample of adult psychiatric outpatients.
Sleep-related activity was measured using h wrist actigraphy over a 7-day period at home, during which participants also kept a sleep diary. High stress load in childhood, but not in adolescence, was associated with shortened actigraphically assessed total sleep time, prolonged sleep onset latency, decreased sleep efficiency and an increased number of body movements in sleep, even after accounting for the effects of later occurring stress and psychopathological symptoms such as depression and anxiety scores.
Unexpectedly, no significant associations between early-life stress load and subjective sleep measures were found. Results are consistent with findings from previous studies indicating an association between childhood adversities and higher levels of nocturnal activity. The findings suggest that high stress load during childhood might be a vulnerability factor for sleep continuity problems in adulthood.
Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary -survey study. Relations were examined using multiple hierarchical regression analysis, while controlling for various child i. In addition, consumption-related family communication was an important moderator of the relations between advertising and the food consumption variables.
Socio-oriented family communication i. In conclusion, consistent with communication theories predicting spill-over effects of advertising, the impact of television food advertising exceeded the advertised brand and generalized to more generic unhealthy consumption patterns. Theoretical and societal consequences, as well as the important role of the family are discussed.
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The subjective experience in 43 Chinese adults with chronic primary insomnia was assessed using focus groups and insomnia experience diaries. Participants recruited from the community and a sleep clinic were diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR insomnia disorder and had sleep difficulties on 3 or more nights per week for at least 6 months.
Six focus groups, of participants each, were conducted; it was stopped as thematic saturation emerged in the last 2 groups.
Using grounded theory approach, we identified 4 themes and 16 subthemes, covering beliefs about the nature and treatment of insomnia, behavioral responses to insomnia, cognitive-emotional and physiological arousal, and emotional experiences associated with insomnia.
The findings are in general compatible with qualitative studies in the West, but some subthemes are influenced by Chinese cultural beliefs and values, in particular, use of the traditional Chinese medicine concept, being modest in sleep expectation, and a letting go attitude. Strategies for cultural adaptation of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia in a Chinese society using patients' subjective experience are discussed.
The impact of reduced worktime on sleep and perceived stress - a group randomized intervention study using diary data. Objective Insufficient time for recovery between workdays may cause fatigue and disturbed sleep.
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Data were collected at baseline and after 9 and 18 months follow-up. Sleep quality, sleep duration, sleepiness, perceived stress,and worries and stress at bedtime were measured with diary during one week per data collection. Effect sizes were small Cohen's f2sleep quality and worries and stress at bedtime as additional between-group factors did not influence the results. These effects were maintained over an month period. This randomized intervention thus indicates that reduced worktime may improve recovery and perceived stress.
A Pilot Study on Acceptability and Compliance. Full Text Available Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. Twenty-eight university students each used a food app for seven consecutive days and attended one of five focus group interviews. An average of 5. Based on questionnaires, high levels of agreement were reported in terms of perceived usefulness Four major themes emerged from the focus group interviews, namely, i features; ii potential use; iii utility issues of the food app; and iv suggestions for improvements.
While the food app was well-accepted by most of the young adults, the current prototype would benefit from incorporation of a barcode scanning function, customizable reminders, in-app tutorial, an entertainment component, and enhancement in overall appearance. Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. This pilot study aimed to i evaluate users' acceptability and compliance in reporting dietary intake using a newly developed food diary mobile application food app ; and ii identify issues and recommendations for improving dietary assessment using this food app via quantitative and qualitative protocols.
Headache diaries and calendars. Headache is one of the most common types of pain and, in the absence of biological markers, headache diagnosis depends only on information obtained from clinical interviews and physical and neurological examinations. Headache diaries make it possible to record prospectively the characteristics This may reduce the recall bias and increase accuracy in the description.
The use of diagnostic headache diaries In addition, we include information on diaries available online and proposals for future areas of research Relatives perception of writing diaries for critically ill.
Relatives may participate in writing a diary for the critically ill and when they do this is appreciated by the patients. However, the relative's perception of writing a diary has AIM: To explore how relatives perceive writing a diary for the critically ill patient.
THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA
METHOD: In a phenomenological-hermeneutic study building on the theory of Ricoeur interviews with seven relatives were conducted and interpreted. We examined a if high intrinsic work.
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Spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work to family life : a daily diary study. A diary study to open up the black box of overtime work among university faculty members. Beckers, D. Objectives: This study aimed at opening up the black box of overtime work among university faculty members by providing information on i when faculty members work overtime, ii what activities are undertaken during overtime, and iii how overtime is experienced.
Methods: Data were collected. Work engagement and financial returns : a diary study on the role of job and personal resources. This study investigates how daily fluctuations in job resources autonomy, coaching, and team climate are related to employees' levels of personal resources self-efficacy, self-esteem, and optimism , work engagement, and financial returns.
Forty-two employees working in three branches of a. Why Do They Study There? Higher education learning and teaching methods have changed while most educational buildings are still rather traditional. Yet, there is an increasing interest in whether we can educate today's higher education students in yesterday's buildings. This paper aims to contribute to this debate by studying the learning space choices of higher education…. Objectives - This study aimed at opening up the black box of overtime work among university faculty members by providing information on i when faculty members work overtime, ii what activities are undertaken during overtime, and iii how overtime is experienced.
Methods - Data were collected. Evaluation of a cell phone-based physical activity diary. Physical activity PA diaries reduce the recall error inherent in self-reported PA but are burdensome. The purpose of this study was to compare a cell phone-based diary with a paper diary and examine the reliability and validity of the cell phone diary. In the subsequent validation study , middle-age participants They also completed two PA questionnaires.
Fitness, body mass index, and percent body fat were obtained as indirect validation criteria. Users preferred the cell phone diary over the paper diary In the subsequent study , intraclass correlations for the cell phone diary ranged from 0. The correlations between the cell phone diary and the indirect validation criteria were generally in the expected direction and of moderate magnitude.
A cell phone-based PA diary is equivalent to a paper diary , acceptable to users, and a relatively reliable and valid approach to self-reported PA. Associations between active video gaming and other energy-balance related behaviours in adolescents: a hour recall diary study. Active video games may contribute to reducing time spent in sedentary activities, increasing physical activity and preventing excessive weight gain in adolescents.
Active video gaming can, however, only be beneficial for weight management when it replaces sedentary activities and not other physical activity, and when it is not associated with a higher energy intake. The current study therefore examines the association between active video gaming and other energy-balance-related behaviours EBRBs. Adolescents years with access to an active video game and who reported to spend at least one hour per week in active video gaming were invited to participate in the study.
They were asked to complete electronic hour recall diaries on five randomly assigned weekdays and two randomly assigned weekend-days in a one-month period, reporting on time spent playing active and non-active video games and on other EBRBs. Active video game time was not significantly associated with other activities and sugar-sweetened beverages intake.
The results suggest that it is unlikely that time spent by adolescents in playing active video games replaces time spent in other physically active behaviours or sedentary activities. Spending more time playing active video games does seem to be associated with a small, but significant increase in intake of snacks. This suggests that interventions aimed at increasing time spent on active video gaming, may have unexpected side effects, thus warranting caution. In this small, pilot study , 11 participants were tracked with a global positioning system GPS -enabled application on their smartphones for 2 weeks.